We have collected some relevant scientific resources here to share with you, covering:
This is a growing list, and so we welcome contributions from the community. Please let us know if we should add anything using the form at the bottom of this page.
Scientific Resources: Nutrition, Cognition & Brain Supplements
Nutrition and Cognition
Brainzyme contains natural-sourced ingredients, that have been independently scientifically proven with clinical studies from respected scientific (peer reviewed) journals and the 18 member panel of nutritional/scientific peers at EFSA.
These published results can be found on the EFSA website and are copied below:
Gomez-Ramirez, et al. The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine.
Kelly, et al. L-Theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance.
Kimura, et al. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.
Nobre, et al. L-Theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.
Rogers, et al. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together.
Arantes, et al. Mechanisms involved in anti-aging effects of guarana in caenorhabditis elegans.
Kennedy, et al. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana extract.
Moustakas, et al. Guarana provides additional stimulation over caffeine alone in the planarian model.
Ahlemeyer & Krieglstein. Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract.
Ponto & Schultz. Ginkgo biloba extract review on CNS effects.
Rapin, et al. Demonstration of the "anti-stress" activity of an extract of Ginkgo biloba using a discrimination learning task.
van Beek. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts.
Banderet & Lieberman. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans.
Colzato, et al. Working memory reloaded: tyrosine repletes updating in the N-back task.
Neri, et al. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.
Thomas, et al. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment.
Reay et al. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained ‘mentally demanding’ tasks.
Smeland et al. Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice
Carabetti, et al. The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems.
Cerdó et al. Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Brain Development.
Ma, et al. Lactobacillus acidophilus Exerts Neuroprotective Effects in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury.
Wang, et al. Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review.
Belviranli, et al. Curcumin improves spatial memory and decreases oxidative damage in aged female rats.
Bhat, et al. Benefits of curcumin in brain disorders.
Dong, et al. Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity.
Mishra, et al. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview.
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to thiamin and reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 23) and contribution to normal psychological functions
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pantothenic acid and energy-yielding metabolism (ID 56, 59, 60, 64, 171, 172, 208), mental performance (ID 57), maintenance of bone (ID 61), maintenance of teeth (ID 61), maintenance of hair (ID 61), maintenance of skin (ID 61), maintenance of nails (ID 61) and synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters (ID 181)
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pantothenic acid and mental performance (ID 58), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 63), adrenal function (ID 204) and maintenance of normal skin (ID 2878)
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B6 and contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 73, 76, 199), maintenance of normal bone (ID 74), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 74), maintenance of normal hair (ID 74), maintenance of normal skin (ID 74), maintenance of normal nails (ID 74), contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 75, 214), contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 77), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 78), and contribution to normal cysteine synthesis (ID 4283)
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and contribution to normal neurological and psychological functions (ID 95, 97, 98, 100, 102, 109), contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 96, 103, 106), maintenance of normal bone (ID 104), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 104), maintenance of normal hair (ID 104), maintenance of normal skin (ID 104), maintenance of normal nails (ID 104), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 108), and cell division (ID 212)
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Iron
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Zinc
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Iodine
The relationship between these ingredients and the effects we claim (such as support of mental performance & cognition, increased concentration, and reduction of tiredness) has been investigated and recognized by EFSA, as shown by the linked articles.
Other helpful and related studies:
- A controlled trial of vitamin-mineral supplementation: Effects of intelligence and performance (study in children).
A triple-blind placebo-controlled design capable of determining whether supplements could produce significant gains in standardized validated indices of intelligence/performance. Results showed highly significant improvements in I.Q with the 100% RDA group showing an (average) 3.7 point IQ increase, and one-third of the cohort showing a 10 point IQ jump. The 200% RDA group showed lower improvements, similar to the 50% RDA group.
- Micronutrient Deficiencies and Cognitive Functioning
- Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function
Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9, 568-578 (July 2008) | doi:10.1038/nrn2421
- Nutrition and its effects on Academic Performance. How can our schools improve? https://www.nmu.edu/sites/DrupalEducation/files/UserFiles/Files/Pre-Drupal/SiteSections/Students/GradPapers/Projects/Ross_Amy_MP.pdf
- University of Aberdeen - Research Areas: Linking Nutrition to Cognition
- Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory (study in children)
Smart Drugs/Brain Enhancers, Nootropics, and Cognitive Enhancers
- Wikipedia page on 'smart drugs', nootropics and cognitive enhancers
- Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy.
Nature (Scientific Journal) 456, 702-705 (11 December 2008) | doi:10.1038/456702a;
- 'Use of ‘smart drugs’ on the rise'. Nature, (05 July 2018)
- No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population
UK national nutritional survey, advisory, and commentary
- Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN)
- Early childhood development and cognitive development in developing countries: A rigorous literature review, published by the UK GOV Department for International Development. It found that nutrition and health, when provided in optimal doses, has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development.
- UK Government - National Diet and Nutrition Survey
Results of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS)
- Dr. Alan Stewarts Referenced Resources for Professionals and the Public
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