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Scientific Resources

We have collected some relevant scientific resources here to share with you, covering:

Nutrition and Cognition

'Smart Drugs' In Research

UK National Nutritional Survey And Commentary

This is a growing list, and so we welcome contributions from the community. Please let us know if we should add anything using the form at the bottom of this page.

Scientific Resources: Nutrition, Cognition & Brain Supplements

Nutrition and Cognition


Brainzyme contains natural-sourced ingredients, that have been independently scientifically proven with clinical studies from respected scientific (peer reviewed) journals and the 18 member panel of nutritional/scientific peers at EFSA.

These published results can be found on the EFSA website and are copied below:

L-THEANINE

Gomez-Ramirez, et al. The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17272967

Kelly, et al. L-Theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641209

Kimura, et al. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16930802

Nobre, et al. L-Theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296328

Rogers, et al. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17891480

GUARANA

Arantes, et al. Mechanisms involved in anti-aging effects of guarana in caenorhabditis elegans.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20187552

Kennedy, et al. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana extract.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2004.07.014

Moustakas, et al. Guarana provides additional stimulation over caffeine alone in the planarian model.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123310

CHOLINE

Zeisel. Choline: an important nutrient in brain development, liver function and carcinogenesis.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1992.10718251

Zeisel, et al. Nutritional importance of choline for brain development.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2004.10719433

GINKGO BILOBA

Ahlemeyer & Krieglstein. Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-003-3080-1

Ponto & Schultz. Ginkgo biloba extract review on CNS effects.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024688326023

Rapin, et al. Demonstration of the "anti-stress" activity of an extract of Ginkgo biloba using a discrimination learning task.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(94)90111-2

van Beek. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00172-3

L-TYROSINE

Banderet & Lieberman. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(89)90096-8

Colzato, et al. Working memory reloaded: tyrosine repletes updating in the N-back task.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00200

Neri, et al. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7794222

Thomas, et al. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00094-5

PANAX GINSENG

Reay et al. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained ‘mentally demanding’ tasks.
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0269881106061516

ACETYL L-CARNITINE

Smeland et al. Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2012.04.008

L. ACIDOPHILUS

Carabetti, et al. The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367209/

Cerdó et al. Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Brain Development.
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111247

Ma, et al. Lactobacillus acidophilus Exerts Neuroprotective Effects in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz105

Wang, et al. Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review.
https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm16018

CURCUMIN

Belviranli, et al. Curcumin improves spatial memory and decreases oxidative damage in aged female rats.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-013-9422-y

Bhat, et al. Benefits of curcumin in brain disorders.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31185140

Dong, et al. Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281036/

Mishra, et al. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781139/

THIAMINE

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to thiamin and reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 23) and contribution to normal psychological functions
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1755

PANTOTHENIC ACID

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pantothenic acid and energy-yielding metabolism (ID 56, 59, 60, 64, 171, 172, 208), mental performance (ID 57), maintenance of bone (ID 61), maintenance of teeth (ID 61), maintenance of hair (ID 61), maintenance of skin (ID 61), maintenance of nails (ID 61) and synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters (ID 181)
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1218

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pantothenic acid and mental performance (ID 58), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 63), adrenal function (ID 204) and maintenance of normal skin (ID 2878)
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1758

VITAMIN B6

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B6 and contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 73, 76, 199), maintenance of normal bone (ID 74), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 74), maintenance of normal hair (ID 74), maintenance of normal skin (ID 74), maintenance of normal nails (ID 74), contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 75, 214), contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 77), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 78), and contribution to normal cysteine synthesis (ID 4283)
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1759

VITAMIN B12

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and contribution to normal neurological and psychological functions (ID 95, 97, 98, 100, 102, 109), contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 96, 103, 106), maintenance of normal bone (ID 104), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 104), maintenance of normal hair (ID 104), maintenance of normal skin (ID 104), maintenance of normal nails (ID 104), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 108), and cell division (ID 212)
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1756

IRON

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Iron
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1215

ZINC

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Zinc
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1229/epdf

IODINE

EFSA Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Iodine
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1800


The relationship between these ingredients and the effects we claim (such as support of mental performance & cognition, increased concentration, and reduction of tiredness) has been investigated and recognized by EFSA, as shown by the linked articles.

Other helpful and related studies:

Smart Drugs/Brain Enhancers, Nootropics, and Cognitive Enhancers

UK national nutritional survey, advisory, and commentary

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